Study: Type 1 Diabetes Following Flu Vaccination
Development of fulminant Type 1 diabetes with thrombocytopenia after influenza vaccination: a case report.

Yasuda H, et al. Diabet Med. 2012.

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BACKGROUND: Fulminant Type 1 diabetes was originally reported as idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. Involvement of viral infections in the pathogenesis of fulminant T1D has been suggested, but the development of fulminant Type 1 diabetes after influenza vaccination has not been reported.
CASE REPORT: We report a case of fulminant Type 1 diabetes with thrombocytopenia following influenza vaccination. A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital with hyperglycaemia and diabetic ketosis. Seven days before admission, he received a seasonal influenza vaccine for the prevention of influenza infection. On admission, blood glucose was 29 mmol/L and HbA1c 40 mmol/mol (5.9%). Fasting and 2-h C-peptide immunoreactivity were <0.0333 nmol/L and 0.0999 nmol/L, respectively. Anti-GAD and anti-IA-2 antibodies were negative, so no autoimmunity seemed to participate in the etiology. ELISPOT assay also showed no association with T cell-mediated autoimmunity. HLA genotypes were consistent with susceptibility to fulminant Type 1 diabetes. After the abrupt onset of diabetes, he showed mild thrombocytopenia, which has been observed for approximately 5 years after diabetes development.
CONCLUSION: This is the first description of fulminant Type 1 diabetes after influenza vaccination. Our observation raises the possibility that influenza vaccination might trigger this condition via the TLR7 pathway.
© 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

PMID 21781156 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]